Burgeoning Better Berries
Berries have assured health benefits. High fiber content of these berries actuate a healthy gut. They have essential antioxidants like anthocyanin, ellagic acid, and resveratrol which helps in managing diabetes and cholesterol too.
In this present time ,where quality of life is gradually increasing, more and more people prefer to consume berries, leading to their increasing demand, which result in expanded scaling of their plantation
Howbeit, berries have not adapted to the natural environment well, the stems, leaves, and fruits of the Berries are close to the ground, and the rich water and sugars in the Berries are very easy to attract insects; and that’s why they are prone to disease due to climate changes during planting.
In order to take effectual counter measures to pests and diseases, it is necessary to quickly and accurately analyse the pests and diseases affecting the berries.
FUNGAL DISEASES IN BERRIES
Berries are prone to fungal diseases like collar rot, which is caused by fungi in the colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex. These pathogens kill berry plants by aggressively invading crown tissue.
Another one is wilt which is caused by the soil borne fungus Verticillium albo-atrum. The fungus stagnates in soil or plant debris as dormant mycelium or black, speck-sized bodies (microsclerotia).
Botrytis bunch rot is one of the most important fungal diseases in berries. The grey mold is caused by fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, which is one of the commercially damaging disease of berries. This pathogen affects fruit in the field, during storage, while transportation and even during marketing the product. The presence of grey mould is the most common reason for the berries get rejected by growers, shippers and consumers, and leads to significant economic losses.
Bacterial spot, a fungal disease whose causal agent is Xanthomonas fragariae, is a slow-growing, gram-negative bacterium that produces water-soaked lesions on the lower leaf surfaces The bacteria enter the leaf through the stomata (tiny spores that are most abundant on the lower surface of the leaf).
Besides these fungal diseases , stemphylium leaf spot and alteraria leaf spot are also on the list.
These fungal diseases can be managed by Bio-Fungicides like Trichoderma Viride , Trichoderma Hrzanium and Pseudomonas Fluroscens with Bacillus Subtilis too.
BIO-INSECTICIDE AND BIO-PESTICIDES FOR THE WIN
Insects like white fly, sap-sucking insects, bacterial wilt and aphids are species of snout moth which need to be managed with the proper biological solution like Azadirachtin and Bacillus Thuringiensis.
Similarly, The Leaf Webber, Larva, Leaf hoppers, are also considered as highly damageable insect and these can be control by the Beauveria bassiana, Neem Azardiractin oil.
Aphids are insects That feed on the sap of cells on the underside of rose leaves and on young shoots and flower buds. Azardiractin as an insecticide, it works by interfering with the insects’ ability to molt (shed their skin).
These Insect causing diseases can be managed by Bio-Insecticide, Bio-Pesticides like – Beauveria bassiana, Neem Azardiractin oil, Bacillus Thuringiensis.
Besieds of these Insects some of the pest are also there which harm the berries like – Red spider mite, Shoot and fruit borer